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External Debt

I. Methodological base, Concepts, Definitions, and Classifications

  • Methodological base: The methodological and conceptual framework for the compilation of external debt statistics is the joint document of international organizations "External Debt Statistics: a Guide for compilers and users", "Public Sector Debt Statistics in an expanded definition: a guide for compilers and users", as well as the sixth edition of the "Balance of Payments and International Investment Position Guide" of the International Monetary Fund (BPM6).

  • Definition: External debt at the reporting date is the outstanding amount of current unconditional obligations of residents of the Republic of Kazakhstan to non-residents, which requires repayment of principal and / or interest in the future.

    An institutional unit is a resident of the Republic of Kazakhstan if the economic territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the center of its predominant economic interest.

  • Classification system: The classification system used meets the requirements set out in the document of international organizations "External Debt Statistics: a guide for compilers and Users". External debt data is classified as follows:

    By institutional sector – central bank, banks, public administration, other sectors, which are divided into two subsectors – other financial organizations and non-financial organizations, households and non-profit organizations serving households (NCODH).
    In a separate position, data on debt obligations to affiliated creditors of Other sectors (inter-company debt) are allocated, which, in turn, are divided into:
    – obligations of Kazakhstan's direct investment enterprises to foreign direct investors;
    – obligations of Kazakhstani direct investors to direct investment enterprises (reverse investment);
    – obligations of Kazakhstani enterprises to foreign sister enterprises.

    By maturity – short-term liabilities (with an initial maturity of one year or less or payable on demand) and long-term liabilities (with an initial maturity of more than one year).
    By type of debt instruments – cash and deposits, debt securities, loans and borrowings, special drawing rights, trade loans and advances, other liabilities (including insurance, pension programs and standard guarantee programs).
    By sector: public in the expanded definition and private – the public sector in the expanded definition includes the central bank, public administration, banks and other sectors in which the public sector directly or indirectly owns more than 50 percent of the capital participation or otherwise controls it. The remaining banks and other sectors belong to the private sector.

II. Data coverage

  • Statistical coverage: External debt statistics cover all types of debt owed by all sectors of the economy to non-residents, regardless of the currency in which the debt is denominated. The external debt statistics also include data on overdue debt, which is taken into account together with the financial instrument for which it originated. External debt does not include guarantees and other contingent liabilities, as well as equity instruments (except for preferred shares held by non-residents, which are included in the debt securities position).

  • Geographical coverage: The economic territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan coincides with its geographical territory within the state border, with the exception of embassies, consulates and other official bodies of foreign states, which are considered extraterritorial in relation to the economy of Kazakhstan. Embassies, consulates, military bases and other official bodies of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan abroad belong to the economic territory of the Republic of Kazakhstan.

III. Accounting principles 

  • Valuation: Tradable debt instruments are valued at market value. Non-tradable instruments are recorded at face value.

    External debt data is generated in US dollars. When calculating the balances of foreign liabilities at the beginning and end of the reporting period, if they are denominated in other currencies, the conversion to US dollars is made using the rates established by the National Bank on these dates, and cross-rates. The conversion of financial transactions taken into account in the reconciliation of foreign debt flows and reserves into US dollars is carried out using the exchange rate set by the National Bank on the date of the transaction, or the cross-rate. If there is no information about the transaction dates, the average quarterly exchange rate is applied.

  • Accounting basis: External debt is primarily recorded on an accrual basis. It includes outstanding amounts due on declared but unpaid dividends.

IV. Main information sources

  • Cash and deposits: The sources of information are the statistical reports of banks and the accounting data of the National Bank

  • Debt securities: Statistical reporting data provided by professional participants of the securities market (brokers, dealers, investment portfolio management organizations, nominee holders and registrars of securities), banks and Kazakhstan issuers. Data on the operations of the National Fund is compiled on the basis of the global custodian report.

  • Loans and borrowings: The sources of information are statistical and administrative reports of banks, other financial and non-financial organizations, including branches of foreign companies and government agencies, administrative reports of individuals, accounting data of the National Bank of Kazakhstan. Debt securities: Statistical reporting data provided by professional participants of the securities market (brokers, dealers, investment portfolio management organizations, nominee holders and registrars of securities), banks and Kazakhstan issuers. Data on the operations of the National Fund is compiled on the basis of the global custodian repor

  • Trade credits and advances: The sources of information are the statistical and administrative reports of non-financial organizations.

  • Other liabilities: The sources of information are statistical and administrative reports of banks, other financial and non-financial organizations, including branches of foreign companies and government agencies, administrative reports of individuals, financial statements of individual organizations, accounting data of the National Bank of Kazakhstan and reports of the global custodian on the assets of the National Fund.

V. Practical features of data development

  • Information from banks and the National Bank on customer payments (transfers) is used.

VI. Other Aspects

  • Additional information: Additional data is distributed on a quarterly basis, such as:
    – external debt by creditor country;
    – external debt by sector of borrowers;
    – external debt by sector of lenders and borrowers;
    – external debt at interest rates;
    – external debt by currency of obligations;
    – debt securities issued by residents and owned by non-residents, at the place of issue;
    – external debt by the term remaining to maturity;
    – schedule of payments for servicing external debt.
    Analytical information in a similar presentation is also available for public sector external debt in the expanded definition.

  • Other: The quarterly publication of the reporting data is accompanied by an analytical commentary in the publication "Balance of Payments and External Debt of the Republic of Kazakhstan".

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